In the Junior school age is especially important to bring the relationship of children with adults and other children in an atmosphere of goodwill, to develop children’s desire to help each other, work together to achieve a goal, is important not only for the child but for the whole group.
To date, teachers have become much more pay attention to improve emotional and psychological relations of younger schoolboys to each other, but this versatile question and today retains a wide field for further research.
For the education of the child, as for his learning, you need to know his personality, understand his spiritual inclinations, temperament, physical characteristics. Not so long ago even conscious educators believed that child is only a young man, unfinished, not yet fully developed the image of an adult. But the psychological experiments of the last years proved all the teachers that the child is a separate physical and spiritual body. Scientific papers have convinced the teachers that every child differs from the adult. There are common types of children and, however, there is a very big difference between individual children; and this individuality must be considered for each teacher.
The methodological basis of research were works of domestic teachers, such as sh. a. Amonashvili, A. S. Makarenko, V. A. Karakovskiy, S. A. Smirnov, V. A. Sukhomlinsky. The high value for the research on the problem of the formation of relationships of younger students present the development of A. S. Makarenko, which detail the developed method of collective education. Thus, as a result of the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature, it was concluded that in the problem of formation of relations of younger schoolboys to each other in objective reality there is the problem of insufficient elaboration of the ways and means of pedagogical influence on the process of formation of relations of younger schoolboys in the team. Given the problem at the initial stage of formation of the personality requires further thorough study.
Work activity leading, the main human activities. The subject of a psychological study of the labour activities are mental processes, factors and conditions that encourage, program and regulate the labour activity of man as well as his personal properties.
From the first days of schooling a child enters the process of interpersonal interaction with classmates and teacher. During the elementary school age, this interaction has at its disposal a certain dynamics and patterns of development.
The first-graders in a period of adjustment at school, communicating with classmates, usually recedes into the background in front of a lot of new school experiences.
Monitoring first-graders shows that at first the children are avoiding contact with each other, each of them tries to isolate himself. Contact between the children joined with the teacher. An example from school life first graders given L. Y. Kolominsky: “If someone forgot to bring to class a pen, but the lesson you need to write, he turns to his comrades to give him an extra pen. The student usually sits silent, sometimes crying, hoping that the teacher would notice his plight. The teacher, knowing what it is, refers to the class asking if anyone had a spare pen. The student who has a free hand, not giving her friend Sam. He passes the pen to the teacher, which sends it to the learner”.
The issue of consolidation of relationships within the collective influences is one of the Central problems in educational work. This is no accident: in the children’s collective has organized teacher relations and relations of so-called natural calling for special attention and efforts.
Relationship and tie in a pair, group, collective, determine the behavior of each individual: convenience or independence, criticality or willingness to accept any point of view, negativity or concern over the fate of a common cause, etc.
Enterprising young students master the skills of communication, hard to establish friendships. The ability to make friends, interact with peers is one of the most important tasks of development at this age stage. Friends are those with whom the child plays, sitting at a Desk or attend together mugs. To determine friendships with peers have a presence in the child such qualities: independence, confidence, initiative. During this period, friendships are unreliable and short-lived, they are easily fastened and quickly can take a break.
When a child comes to school, he formed a system of personal (emotional) relations in the classroom.
The children receiving the maximum number of choices from classmates possess even-tempered, communicative, have abilities that are active and rich imagination. Most of these children do well at school. Students who have disadvantaged position in the system of personal relations in the class have difficulties in communicating with peers, testy, petulant, pugnacious, can be unsociable. Many of the children are messy and sloppy.
With years eligibility criteria change. At the main site becomes active, organizational skills. At this time, children become independent and strong in themselves and their abilities. Indicators combined with the teachings fade into the background.
The children, who is in the class of successful the situation, is able to underestimate it. Since in this period is the restructuring of how interpersonal relations and awareness. It is necessary to occupy the intended position in the peer group.
Occurring in this age transformations in relationships with peers, consider the organization of “educational” activities.
To ensure success in raising much attention should be paid to the development of activity, initiative and independence of children [4, 23]. In school, the guys, timidly at first and then more and more confident and often act with their proposals. First graders have expressed a desire to congratulate the mom on “mother’s Day”. Between children had assigned tasks: one to learn a poem, others to draw greeting cards, third to make up a story about mom. Each child drew a portrait of his mother. Extracurricular activities enjoyed by children and mothers.
Relationship of first-graders largely depend on the teacher. While the children have not formed their own relationships and evaluate themselves and classmates, they unquestioningly accept a teacher evaluation, which is for children of higher authority.
The teacher fosters relationships in the class, and the formation. The behavior of the teacher in each case must be personally, going from the characteristics of the formed situation, the level of development of interpersonal relations in the classroom:
- The involvement of the student in interesting activities;
- Help in achieving success;
- Overcoming the effectiveness of the child;
- To develop a child’s confidence.
In the second and third classes, the teacher’s personality becomes less important for students, but relationships with classmates and become stronger.
In elementary classes the child already has a desire to occupy a certain place in the system of personal relationships. The ability to make something better of all it is very important for younger students. At this time the child tries to master different skills. The skill of a child can be a manifestation in different areas. Most importantly, this skill has been valuable in the eyes of adults and peers. It is important that each child feel valued and unique.
In the course of employment, from the relationships that formed between members of the training team depends on the formation of personality formation of students — activity, independence, cognitive interest, stimulated by the disposition of the teacher, the desire to listen to everyone, to take part to the mood of the students. Successful team relationships and promote well-being learning activities. Support when difficulties approval success, everything becomes divided and joy, and sharing the troubles.
The problem of relationship in the educational process shows the nature of communication among its members and is a major factor in collective learning activities of teachers and students. The influence of the relationship on the status of the student in the learning activities, its performance is undeniable.
The teacher should consider the age at which it can build. The younger the student, the more manifest characteristics such as interest in teaching, his emotions, spontaneity.
Another feature of the younger students is the desire to see faster results of their own work. It needs to organize their activities so that the time intervals between the target and the result were shorter.
Since cognitive activity of Junior schoolchildren is low, it is very effective for the formation of their activity, independence through practical action. Therefore, the choice of activities related to cognition in the learning process, will provide a practical output of its results.
We need to ensure that from the first days of school life each student has learned, consciously and responsibly fulfill all training and work assignments as in class and homework.
Conclusions. A theoretical study of problems of formation of the relationship of children of primary school age with their peers in the workplace leads to the conclusion that every child feel valued and unique.
The task for adults at this stage is to help every child realize their potential, reveal the value of the skills of each student.
The ability of the child, knowledge of their strengths and weaknesses is the reason for the formation of independence, self-confidence, personal autonomy, allowing you to be competent in communicating with peers.
It should be noted the impact of age on the development of collective relations. Younger school age is a critical period of development of the social life of the child. The school is expanding the circle of children, the formation of new interpersonal relationships.
Thus, in primary school age should pay greatest attention to the formation of positive relationships in children’s educational team, given that the position of the pupil in the system of communication formed in the first two classes, and is a constant.
The teacher must clearly represent different ways of forming relationships and to be able to use the best methods and techniques to achieve objectives. Remembering that, creating a team, it forms the personality of each student, in the mind of the child the determining factor is not only the character of its leading activities, but the nature of the system of relationships with other people that he comes at different stages of their development.
School is a place for generating the most complex, which can only be in the world of human relations. It is complex because is made great and hard, joyful and painful work of man. Teaching wisdom is to see his pupil through the eyes of the Creator.